Roš haŠana

Ime «Roš haŠana» nije korišćeno u Bibliji pri diskusiji o ovom prazniku. Biblija se odnosi na praznik kao «Jom haZikarom (dan pamćenja)» ili «Jom Terua (dan oglašavanja šofara)».

Doslovno značenje imena je “početak nove godine” ili “glava godine”. Iza proslave nove godine leži nešto više, dublje. To je dan prosuđivanja, jer Jevreji širom sveta sagledavaju svoje učinke u prošlosti i traže oproštaj za svoje grehe. To je dan pamćenja, jer se Jevreji prisećaju istorije svog naroda i mole za Izrael. To je dan oglašavanja šofara, jer zvuk šofara nagoveštava početak svetih dana.

Roš haŠana je jevrejska nova godina. Praznik traje dva dana. Svečano se oblačimo za novu godinu, postavljamo svečani stolnjak, palimo sveće i jedemo specijalnu, ukusnu, prazničnu večeru. Umesto upletene hale, jede se okrugla.

Običaj je da se tokom nove godine jedu slatki plodovi kao simbol naše želje za slatkom godinom. Iz istog razloga jedemo kolač od meda za dezert.

Hala se umače u med i nakon toga, prve večeri, kriške jabuke. Med je takođe glavni sastojak u mnogim prazničnim receptima.

Prema Talmudu, simbolična dela se izvode kao dobar predznak, u nada da ce nova godina biti dobra.

Kada sretnemo prijatelje ili rođake za novu godinu, želimo im sretnu novu godinu – šana tova.

Još jedan od popularnih običaja je molitva «Tašlih», kada se odlazi na obalu reke, na podne prvog dana nove godine i prazne se džepovi, čime se simbolično oslobađamo svojih grehova.

U sinagogi, ljudi nose talit (molitveni šal). Oni se mole i žele novu godinu, svojim rečima ili čitaju iz novogodišnjeg molitvenika.

Mi se ne molimo samo za sebe, već i za mir i sreću u celom svetu.

Takođe, u sinagogi možemo čuti veoma poseban jak zvuk iz šofara.

Šofar je instrument napravljen od roga ovna ili neke druge košer životinje. Korišćen je od strane starih Izraelaca da označi početak novog meseca (Roš hodeš) i da okupi ljude. Takođe je iz njega duvano na Roš haŠana, označavajući početak nove godine.

Danas se šofar pretežno koristi za jutarnju molitvu na novu godinu. Smatra se zapovešću i micvom (dobrim delom) da se šofar oglasi. Njegov zvuk odjekuje u duši Jevrejina.

Kada se šofar oglasi, u sinagogi je potpuna tišina. Niko ne priča, niti se iko pomera. Mi čak zamišljamo kako ovaj snažni zvuk dopire do Boga, u nadi da će naše molitve biti uslišene i da ćem nam godina zaista biti dobra.

Rambam (Moše Majmonides), jedan od najvećih sefardaskih rabina srednjeg veka piše - šofar duhovno budi odgovornost prema Bogu i ljudima. Zove nas da se pokajemo.

Šofar takođe povezuje dve prilike: prošlu i buduću. Šofar se oglasio na planini Sinaj kada je predata Tora. Tora nam govori, a tradicja podržava da će šofar nagovestiti dolazak mesijanskog vremena.

Knjiga života

Legenda nam govori da na novu godinu, oglašavanje šofara podseća Boga da otvori knjigu života, u kojoj su upisana imena sviju nas. Knjiga života je podeljena na tri dela: knjiga života pravednih, knjiga života rđavih (poročnih) i knjiga života onih u sredini. Pravednici odmah bivaju upisani za dobar život u sledećoj godini, a rđavi bivaju osuđeni na smrt. Presuda onih koji se nađu u sredini će biti izrečena na Jom Kipur, dajući im tako vremena da se pokaju i promene. Ovo verovanje je stvorilo običaj da ljudi govore jedni drugima ne samo «sretnu novu godinu (šana tova)», već i da izraze «želju da budu upisani za dobru novu godinu (le šana tova tihtevu)». Ovakav običaj je počeo u srednjem veku među nemačkim Jevrejima. Kasnije to se proširilo. Jevreji su iskazivali svoje želje i pismeno, završavajući njima pisma i poruke. Danas se mogu videti na hiljade ovakvih čestitki, na kojima su različiti motivi.

Šana tova u metuka !

Autor teksta Katarina Gabaj

 

  

 

 

Pogledaj Jamim Noraim - Koji je odabrao i priredio Rabin Isak Asiel

 

Why do we Eat Special Foods on Rosh Hashanah?

by Rabbi David Golinkin

 

Question:

There is a custom to eat special foods on Rosh Hashanah. What are the sources of this custom? Why do Ashkenazim and Sefaradim eat different foods on Rosh Hashanah?

 

Responsum:

 

I)               The Sources for the Custom

 

The first hint of this custom is found in the book of Nehemiah (8:9-10), which was written in Eretz Yisrael after 445 BCE. At the beginning of the seventh month, after reading the Torah scroll to the entire people, “Nehemiah… and Ezra the priest… said to the entire people: ‘Today is holy to the Lord your God, do not mourn and do not cry… go, eat choice foods and drink sweet drinks and send portions to whoever has nothing prepared, for the day is holy to our Lord’.”

 

In any case, all of the customs today are based on the words of Abbaye (Babylon, 4th century CE) which appear in two Talmudic passages (Horayot 12a and Keritot 6a). After a passage which explains how to perform an omen to check whether you will return home from a trip, Abbaye said: “Now that you said that an omen is effective, a person should always be accustomed to see (l'mehezay) kara (gourd), rubia (fenogrec), kartey (leeks), silka (beets) and tamrey (dates) on Rosh Hashanah”.

 

II)             The Reasons for the Custom

 

Why did Abbaye say to see these foods on Rosh Hashanah? The simple reason is that this is a type of magic; we do a positive act on Rosh Hashanah, which will have a positive effect on the entire year. Indeed, this was the explanation given by a number of rabbis and scholars:

 

Rav Natronai Gaon (Sura, mid-ninth century) was asked about these customs and he replied that "they are a good nahash (divination)" (Otzar Hageonim to Rosh Hashanah, Responsa section, p. 53, parag. 94 = Teshuvot Rav Natronai Gaon, ed. Brody, p. 306). In Sefer Hamanhig, written by R. Abraham of Lunel (Toledo, 1204, ed. Raphael, p. 304), it says that on the evening of Rosh Hashanah they put on the table special foods "l'simana tava (for a good omen) for the next year" but in ms. A it adds "l'simana tava v'nahsha ma'alya" (and an excellent divination).

 

Similarly, Rashi explains in his commentary to Keritot 6a: “And these [foods] – some grow quickly and some are sweet". In other words, we look at things that grow quickly or are sweet as an omen for a good and sweet year (cf. Rashi to Horayot 12a for a similar explanation). A similar explanation is given by Mahzor Vitry (p. 362), which was edited by Rashi’s student R. Shimshon of Vitry ca. 1120. After bringing some of the customs under discussion, he says: "Everything new and light and good – for a good omen for the entire Jewish people".

 

And so explained Hayyim Schauss in his classic work The Jewish Festivals (pp. 158-159), which was translated from the Yiddish in 1938:

This custom is based on an ancient magical belief, that every activity calls forth its counterpart… and if one eats sweet dishes at the beginning of the year, sweetness will abide for the entire year. This is an old primitive belief, widespread amongst all peoples.

 

Indeed, the Chinese observe similar customs on their New Year:

Long noodles promised longevity. Oysters in my local dialect meant "alive". Eggs were round and perfect… and if you twisted the pronunciation of "seaweed" a little, it sounded a lot like the word that meant "fortune". (Da-Chen, Colors of the Mountain, New York, 1999, p. 56)

 

However, there were rabbis who did not like the magical explanation for these customs and who looked for more rational explanations. Thus, for example, Rabbi Ya’akov Anatoli (Provence and Naples, thirteenth century) in his book Malmad Hatalmidim (Lyck, 1866, fol. 180b) said that even though the Talmud itself says that these foods are an omen, "not that these foods should appear like the divination of fools and women; but since satiation makes one forget the intent of the day, a person must see these foods and think about the similar-sounding words [which express the things we pray for on Rosh Hashanah – see below]”. Indeed, a similar and lengthier explanation is given by the Meiri in his Hibbur Hateshuvah, written in Provence ca. 1300 (ed. Sofer, New York, 1950, pp. 265-266). Nevertheless, the simple explanation is preferable.

 

III)          The Three Customs in the Geonic Period

 

In the Geonic period, Abbaye's custom developed in two directions. On the one hand, they began to recite aloud the omen associated with each food. On the other hand, they did three different actions with each food on the basis of three different readings of one of Abbaye's words, which was emphasized above:

  1. L'mehazey = to see, which was the most widespread reading;
  2. L'meihad = to hold;
  3. L'meikhal = to eat.1

 

It is quite likely that the three readings stemmed from the abbreviation "l'me' " which each copyist completed in a different fashion. In any case, these three readings led to three different customs in the Geonic period:

 

1. An anonymous Gaon (Otzar Hageonim to Rosh Hashanah, pp. 52-53, parag. 93) quotes the passage from Horayot 12a with the reading d'hazey (to see) and continues:

…And they put before them a basket which contains gourd, Egyptian ful (beans), leeks, vegetables, spinach, and dates and they look at it and they put their hands [on each of them] and they extract from its name a good omen. On the gourd they say: "Kara – yikara, may our evil decree be torn". On the ful: "Rubia – yirbu zchuyoteinu, may our merits increase". On the leeks: "Kartey – yikartu, may our enemies be cut off". On the spinach: "Silka – yistalku avoneinu, may our sins go away". On the dates: "Tamrey – yitamu avonoteinu, may our sins end". And they add a pomegranate and they say on it: "Nirbeh zchuyoteinu k'rimon, may our merits increase like [the seeds of] a pomegranate"…

 

In other words, according to this responsum, we look at the foods and then touch them and say the wordplays, following the reading l'mehezay = to see in the Talmud.

 

2. In testimony about Rav Hai Gaon (d. 1038; Otzar Hageonim to Rosh Hashanah,

p. 52 parag. 92), we are told:

It was found written in a letter from R. Matzliah ben Eliyahu of Sicily, who visited Rav Hai on Rosh Hashanah and found him returning from the synagogue and his students after him and they brought him gourds and Egyptian ful and leeks and dates and spinach and fruits in a basket and honey and peas. And he reached out his hand to the gourd and said: Kara [etc. as above in parag. 1]. So did he take the honey and the peas and said: "A land flowing [with milk and honey] (Exodus 3:8 and elsewhere)… And each of his students took from the basket … to his house. And they do so because we learn in Horayot and Keritot… a person must hold (l'meyhad) on Rosh Hashanah…

 

In other words, Rav Hai used to hold the foods and recite the wordplays, according to the reading l'meyhad, to hold, in the Talmud.

 

3. Rav Natronai Gaon discussed our topic in a responsum (Otzar Hageonim to Rosh Hashanah, pp. 53-54, parag. 94; I have used the Brody edition, pp. 305-306):

… and regarding your question that we take the heads of sheep on Rosh Hashanah and eat [them]… this is a good nahash (divination) and most of the people in Babylon are accustomed to this, that on Rosh Hashanah eve they take meat or heads [of animals] and they cook them in barley or in something sweet… and they say: “We will eat sweet things and meat and fatty things in order that the entire year will be sweet and pleasant and that it should not contain anything bad or any trouble”.

 

In other words, Rav Natronai used to eat the foods and recite the wordplays; we can assume that he had the reading l'meykhal = to eat in the Talmud.

 

IV)      Additional Customs from the Rishonim and the Aharonim

 

However, during the period of the Rishonim (1000-1500), rabbis who quoted the reading l'mehazey - to see from the Talmud, also reported that the foods were eaten on Rosh Hashanah!2 In other words, the clear connection between the reading in the Talmud and the actual custom was lost; slowly but surely Jews began to eat all of the foods. Furthermore, the Rishonim added foods that were not mentioned by Abbaye. This may have been because they could not identify the vegetables mentioned by Abbaye or because those vegetables did not grow in their locale.

 

Mahzor Vitry (see above; France, ca. 1120) quotes Abbaye with the reading l'mehazey (to see) and adds: "From this source the Jews of France used to eat on Rosh Hashanah red apples, and so too in Provence they eat white grapes and white figs and the head of a sheep, everything new and light and good for a good omen for the entire Jewish people".

 

Sefer Hamanhig (see above; Toledo, 1204) quotes Abbaye with the reading linkot (to hold) and adds: "And from here I have a support for the custom of Provence to take all new things and to put [them] on the table on the nights of Rosh Hashanah, as a good omen for the entire next year, the head of a sheep ‘that they should be a head and not a tail’ (cf. Deut 25:13) and lung, which is light…" (pp. 304-305).

 

Rabbi Ya’akov ben Asher (Ashkenaz and Spain, d. 1343 in Toledo, Tur Orah Hayyim 583) quotes Abbaye from Keritot with the reading l'meykhal (to eat), and then adds: "And from this the customs multiplied, every place according to its custom, like in Ashkenaz, where they are accustomed to eat at the beginning of the meal a sweet apple with honey [and] to say 'May we have a sweet year'. He then quotes from Sefer Hamanhig and adds: "Rabbi Meir of Rothenburg used to eat the head of a ram in memory of Isaac's ram (Genesis 22:13)". Sefer Abudraham Hashalem (Spain, 14th century, p. 266) contains a similar passage.

 

The Shulkhan Arukh is based on the above sources. R. Yosef Karo rules (Orah Hayyim 583:1-2) that a person should eat the five foods mentioned by Abbaye and recite the wordplays. He adds that people eat the head of a sheep to say “May we be a head and not a tail” and in memory of Isaac’s ram.

 

The Rema adds (ibid.) that some eat sweet apple with honey and some eat pomegranates and some eat fatty meat and various sweets.

 

The Aharonim (1500 ff.) added additional foods on Rosh Hashanah. Rabbi Avraham Danzig (Vilna, d. 1820) wrote in Hayye Adam (Klal 139:6) that we eat "merrin" on Rosh Hashanah and we say: "May God increase our merits". "Merrin" in Yiddish means "carrots" and "mer" in Yiddish means "more" - so we eat carrots in order to increase our merits on Rosh Hashanah. Indeed, this is why Ashkenazim eat sweet tzimess made out of carrots on Rosh Hashanah.

 

Finally, French-speakers in Jerusalem have a custom of eating bananas on Rosh Hashanah because "banana" in French sounds like "bonne année", a good year!3

 

In conclusion, Sefardic Jews and Jews of Islamic lands, conduct a "Seder Rosh Hashanah" on the night of Rosh Hashanah, in keeping with the Geonim, Abudraham and R. Yosef Karo, in which they eat 6-11 different foods and recite the appropriate wordplay over each food.4 The Ashkenazim eat a sweet apple dipped in honey, the head of a fish and/or a sheep, and tzimess on the basis of the Tur, the Rema and Hayye Adam. However, these customs are very fluid and flexible as we have seen, so it is possible to adopt different foods.

May we enjoy these special foods on Rosh Hashanah and “may it be God's will that we should have a sweet New Year".

 

David Golinkin
Jerusalem
Rosh Hodesh Elul 5768

 

 

Notes

1. I have found 12 manuscripts or medieval rabbis who have the reading l'mehezey.

"L'meyhad" appears in both Talmudic passages according to R. Matzliah (see parag. III, 2) and cf. Sefer Hamanhig who has the reading "linkot" = to hold.

"Lemeykhal" appears in Horayot according to Aggadot Hatalmud and in Keritot according to the printed editions and Tur Orah Hayyim 583.

2. See Mahzor Vitry, p. 362; Shibboley Haleket, p. 266; Abudraham, p. 266; and cf. Orhot Hayyim, fol. 99d who has the reading "lehezay", to see, but explains “to take” as if he had the reading "l’meyhad".

3. So I was informed by Rabbi Eitan Chikli and by my wife, Dory Golinkin.

4. See the booklet by Rabbi Avraham Zaitun listed in the bibliography below.

  

Bibliography

 

Akiva Ben Ezra, Minhagey Hagim, Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, 1963, pp. 10-14

Rabbi Shem Tov Gaguine, Keter Shem Tov, Part 6, London, 1955, pp. 96-101

Rabbi Ya’akov Hayyim Sofer, Kaf Hahayyim to Orah Hayyim 583

Asher Waserteil, editor, Yalkut Minhagim, third edition, Jerusalem, 1996

Rabbi Avraham Zaitun, Seder Rosh Hashanah Beit Avraham, Jerusalem, 2004, 46 pages (16 different versions of Seder Rosh Hashanah)

Rabbi Yehudah Dov Zinger, Ziv Haminhagim, Jerusalem, 1965, pp. 155-156

 

 

Prof. David Golinkin is President of the Schechter Institute of Jewish Studies in Jerusalem. Feel free to reprint this article in its entirety. If you wish to abbreviate it, please contact Rabbi Golinkin at golinkin@schechter.ac.il.  The opinions expressed here are the author's and in no way reflect an official policy of the Schechter Institute.

 

The Schechter Institutes, Inc. is dedicated to the advancement of pluralistic Jewish education in Israel and Europe.  A non-profit organization, it supports four educational institutions based in Jerusalem, Israel: ● Schechter Institute  of  Jewish  Studies:  A Graduate School for Israeli Educators, where over 500 students learn Jewish studies within a pluralistic environment ● Schechter Rabbinical Seminary which trains Conservative/Masorti rabbis in Israel ● TALI Education Fund which provides Jewish studies programs for  35,000 Israeli children in 185 state schools and kindergartens ● Midreshet Yerushalayim  which provides Jewish education to  Russian immigrants in Israel and Jewish communities in the Ukraine and Hungary.        www.schechter.edu

  

We invite you to join our growing family of supporters, who are enabling the Schechter Institute Graduate School, the Schechter Rabbinical Seminary, TALI Education Fund and Midreshet Yerushalayim  to provide inclusive, pluralistic Jewish education to tens of thousands of Israelis and scores of Jewish communities

in Eastern Europe. Click here: http://www.schechter.edu/support/gifts.htm

 

 

 

ROSH HASHANA

Este diya kaye en el primer diya del syeten mez del kalendaryo ebreo ke
es Tishrei (Vayikra 23.24). El primer mes es Nisan, komo lo savesh.

En la Torah el apelido de Rosh Hashana no egziste en dingun lugar. Pasa ke
" YOM TERUA " el diya ke se asopla el SHOFAR. En Yehezkell 40.1 pasa ke
el empesijo del anyo i no komo el primer diya del anyo. Muestra literatura
rabinika en ladino lo nombra YOM HA DIN el Diya del Djuzgamiyento i YOM HA ZIKARON
el Diya de Akodramiyento.

Los 10 diyas ke empesan dospues de las fiestas de Rosh Hashana fina el Diya de
Kipur YOM KIPUR son Los Dies Diyas de Arrepiyentamento.

Kefi la Mishnah es de este diya de Rosh Hashana - ke es el Diya de l'Anyo Muevo
para las personas, los animales i los kontraktos entre las personas - ke se
empesa a kalkular los anyos kalendaryos, el anyo sabatiko (SHMITA) i los anyos
de jubileo (YOVEL).

Rosh Hashana se fiesta dos diyas.
Parese ke se fiestava un diya solo fina el sieglo 13

A parte de los servisyos de kada diya ay tefilot ke se adjuntan, komo la
orasyon de la AMIDAH por el Shaharit i el Musaf. El SHofar es asoplado a
variyas intervalas en el Musaf.
Versos de la Biblia son dichos. Kefi la Mishnah 10 versos (kada uno i uno) son
dichos por el reyno el akodramiento i el shofar mizmo, kada uno akompanyado kon
el asoplamiyento del shofar. Unos PIYUTIM se kantan ke son tefilotes de
la Edad Medya kon temas de arrepiyentamento.
La orasyon ALEYNU se aze al tiempo de la repetisyon del MUSAF AMIDAH.

La djente se suetan " SHANA TOVA " Anyada buena, "SHANA TOVA uMETUKA"
Anyada buena i dulse...Porke seramos djuzgados por el Todo Poderozo Baruh Hu
Baruh Shmo i por esto dizimos tambien "Ktiva ve Hatima Tova " Ke te seya
eskrito i afirmado por un anyo bueno.

El kalenderyo judyo es preparado de tala manera ke Rosh Hashana nunka kaye em
Alhad, en Myerkoles i en Vyernes.

El mas d'emprano Rosh Hashana okuryo en el 5 de Septembre en 1899 i va afitar
otra vez en 2013 - Si Di-o mos da vidas - El mas tadre Rosh Hashana okuryo el
5 de Oktubre en 1967 i va afitar otra ves en 2043. Mozotros no lo vamos a ver !

En el dospues de midi del primer diya se aze el TASHLIH, Se roga allado de aguas
koryendo naturalmente. Munchos embiyan pedasos de pan o piedrizikas chikas a las
aguas para dezazersen de sus pekados (Yeshaya 11,9) i se kantan los Psalmos
118. 5 i 9, 121 i 130.

Komemos MANSANAS I MIEL,  Si !
Vedrura i aluenga ke karne porke se topa en el Rosh (kavesa) ! Yo meto al orno
la kavesa entera del kodrero !
Ayyyyyyyy ke kuando lo eskrivo me ezgrimo ma no kuando lo ago !!!!! No lo veygo
komo kuando lo eskrivo ! Madre mia bendicha !

La segunda noche frutas muevas se gostan para el "Shehiyanu" ....Agranadasssssss s !
i esta noche es kontada ke la fin del Diya Largo de Rosh Hashana (2 diyas en 1)